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Introduction:
The uprising movement which is against the communist rule in Afghanistan were directed against the state itself as against the communist Government which took place in 1978 and 1979. The directly imposition of communist ideology on the people of Afghanistan is a more radical phase of the penetration of the state government. So this is the reason people rejected the communist ideology in Afghanistan. The State of Afghanistan was evolve as a tribal land and as a symbols of authority many of the leaders of the resistance movements against the communist rule imagined that the state of Afghanistan is an Islamic state.
To separate the state and society in Afghanistan is always separated and this separation is experienced in day today life. This can be seen in the rural villages where administrative buildings are uses from the people residence residences. The clothes and other general behavior shown as the role of the Individual in the society. The state is unfamiliar for the common men in village, and state official is characterized the relation between the state and the common men in village is reflected as mutual disrespect. In fact, there is only one real town, Kabul, the capital, where, of course, the distinction between state and society is seen. But there are really two Afghanistan: the first one is known as Shahar (city) According to Afghans the Place of Innovation (Bidd’ha) and the other one is atraf (Provinces) In the Shahar there is a natural environment of civil servants,the solders, and the communists there are some bar heads un believers and Arrogant. But in the Atraf the religious Values, tradition values which stand at the test of time.

Tribal and Non tribal Foundation of Afghanistan:
The Afghanistan state was established in the eighteenth century, when a tribal association developed into a sovereign state. In 1747 Ahmad Shah, of the Saddozay tribe lead an Abdali association, now this tribe known as the Durrani, in the conquest of the area between Persia and the river Indus. The Saddozay dynasty was to be followed in 1818 by another Durrani dynasty, the Muhammadzay clan of the Barakzai tribe, which held power until 1978. The abdali and other tribal organization join hands with the common Aim that concequring Neighbouring areas with aview to Pillaging Exacting tribute. The military and political system of this time was defined by the Tribal Welfare. War was decided by the Jirja (meeting with the council of tribes). War was a short lived matter. The Arms (lashker) that went was selected from the total number of Warriors in the Arms (Lashkar). This is the Frame work of a traditional Society. But the Lashkar usually had a supreme and temporary leader whose room for maneuver was limited, for he was always suspected of favoring his own tribe. The supreme leader of the Lashkar was is a warrior chief with his followers in his contact. This leaded was elected and his right to lead was selected on the basis of the Tribal Jirga (assembly of all the warriors and leaders of the tribe). The allegation on the Restricted community the Tribal code of Pashtunwali not to the Pashtun or to the State join the enemy in order the better to affirm the tribal values (vengeance or self-assertion) was not seen as constituting treachery.
There is distinguish between the tribal zones and the non-tribal zones, even the line between the two is not clear. In every Afghan Community there is a Link to The Past by a connection of their families through his father. Every Afghan community is Conscious of belonging to a larger entity which takes the form of a more or less endogenous Community known as the Qawm. Whether they are Tribe, professional group caste, linguage (the galzai), the religious group (the Sunni, wahabi, Ahla-hadesh) etc. There are some other terms like: small tribe (qabila) used for the qwams (قوم) there are some traditional Tribal rights and rituals, a system within Islam of autonomous values (honour, punishment, etc.) The Pashtun Zone of the East called Pashtunwali (which is at one and the same time both a code and an ideology) and there are some prestigious Institutions of the Tribe called jirga,(جرگہ) the assemblies of all the men in the tribe. For the case of Those Pashtun they are living in the west, especially the Durrani Pashtun, the case is more difficult. There is certainly a tribal memory, in the sense that belonging to the tribe and the clan is something of which people are well aware and quite happy to talk about. Their allegiance is directed towards the great families, such as the royal family, or, in the case of the Popolzay tribe, the Karzay; they also respect the tribal mythology of the great jirga and the principle of egalitarianism
The history of the Afghan state (dawlat دولت) from 1747 to the present is bound up with the search on the part of the state of bureaucracy (hukumat) for autonomy from the tribes. The state government has influence of tribalism in the sense that individual tribes no longer retain specific responsibilities but it is still subject to the patronage of the community (qawm (قوم The summit of power in the 'state still belong to the Muhammadzay establishment.
Islam in Afghanistan
In Afghanistan majority of the Afghans are Muslim Apart from a few thousand Sikhs, Hindu and hundreds of Jews. 80% of Afghans are Sunnis and Majority of the Sunnis are the Follower of Imam Abu- Hanaifa called as Hanafi’s, others are Shi’a and Majority of them are the follower of Immam Jaffar Sadiq Known as Jefferies. In the Country of Afghanistan the concept of State is seen as external to society, and different tribal alliances in the society is directed towards their local community. The concept of Nation in Afghanistan has developed recently. The only Common thing in all the Afghan have their Religion Islam. Islam Provides that the system of Prospect, ruling system of Society and the Value system and behavioral Code. Sometime this Islamic System clash with the other Tribal Code of conduct, such as the Tribal System. E.g. This Islamic System provides the sovereignty and the source of Legitimation based on Universal Value Islam Provides equality with the Tribal, Non-Tribal Areas or Rular and Urban Areas., but on the same way the link between ideology and Religion differs accordingly, the situation can decide whether a group is Secularized fundamentalists or Traditionalists or Reformists. Hence there is different forms of religious expression, each decide with its own symbol. In this context, we should distinguish between the village mullah, the 'alim (doctor of lawعالم), the sayyad (reputed to be a descendant of the Prophet (PBUH)), the peer (a charismatic figure sometimes to be found at the head of a Sufi brotherhood) and finally the Islamist intellectual. Among the different forms of religious expression there should be a difference between the popular devotion, the legal orthodoxy of the ulama, the mysticism of the Sufis and the political Islam of the Salafism. Recent developments have seen a gradual erosion of the influence of the ulama, which has been going on since the last century, though this has suddenly been reversed because of the present war. There has also been a schism in Sufism between the orthodox orders in the non-tribal zones and the non-clerical orders in the southern area of Afghanistan. Other developments have been the decline in the influence of the sayyad and the charismatic leaders, and a crisis in the relationship between shari'at and custom in the tribal zones. The Islamist movement, led by young intellectuals, has greatly increased its power and influence.
Islam, traditional law and the tribal code:
Throughout all the Afghanistan Islam is not Only the Single System of norms. While state law (qanun) is alien to the country communities, customs (riwaj) and superstition, often of pre-Islamic origin, exist everywhere. There is also, a certain number of institutions, such as the counsel of the venerable elders, and mirab have developed without any direct link with the shari'at council. In particular, a complex but precise system of common law has gradually evolved in the countryside. But, as far as the non-tribal zones are concerned, the general framework of penal law and of common law is still provided by the shari'at. And even though reference to the shari'at is often purely verbal, no positive system has come to take its place.
The situation in the tribal zones is quite different to the non-tribal zone the positive system of the tribe, comparing with the tribal code (Pashtunwali) Jirga (Assembly of tribal Leader). Pashtunwali is a system of tribe at the same time is an ideology and body of common law. This law evolved as a system of its own sanctions and Institutions tribes are not dependent on Religion on the institution of law and Political power in the tribe are secular in Nature in its origin. The tribal Law and the Shari ‘at are opposed to each other on many issues.
The Status of Mulahana in the Tribal Zone are very low, the Mullahana of the village having good relation with the Tribe not with other Alim councils or other religious leaders. They gives more Importance to the Tribal Laws on the Shari’at. Even if Mulllaha native tongue is Pashtu or he is Pashtu, he would never say that he was a Pashtun, The son of a khan would never engage in religious studies. To be a Pashtun is to be integrated into a tribal structure. Ulama’s are outside the tribal system, either below it, or above it. The village mullah is placed with those people who have barakat, the myan, sayyad, peer and charismatic leaders. The family from which he comes is usually considered to be outside the tribal group. The position of mullah is often handed down from father to son he is dependent upon his own particular group. In the zones where the tradition of tribalism is still strong, such as Kunar and Paktya, he does not take part in the jirga, though elsewhere (for instance, in Wardak) he attends as a technical counsellor. If he attempts to go beyond his function as a person entrusted with the task of managing rituals, an anti-clerical reaction will always follow the mullahanas to the mosque. In each case the representatives of religion exist outside the tribal structure, a fact which has had important consequences with regard to the way in which Islam found as a religion of political expression in the war and this Influence used and exercised by the political parties which comes the confentration of the movement.
The Muslim Law (Shari ‘at) and tribal code are opposed to each other. e.g Adultery rape (zina) according to the Shari ‘at, it is necessary to require four witness to prove the case of Zina (Rape) but in Pashtunwali to defend the honour of one self-image, Peghor (hearsey) is Sufficient for what is at Self Image and not Morality and the honor. In the tribal code woman are not allowed to have any property rights of inherent Property. But in the Islamic law Shari ‘at clearly defines women are equally responsible for Husband Property and she has also get property right from her father’s property The Qur'an grants the women 1/4th share in the Father’s property It is necessary for the Father to property right to her Daughter. Vengeance (badal) is praised within the tribal code, while the shari'at attempts to limit the times on which it can be take place. Shari’at gives the importance to Forgiveness. The wesh (partition among brothers) the usual way in which land is redistributed, is contested by the mullahs on the grounds that landed property is something intangible.
These are two system the tribal code and Shari ‘at, these are two positive System which are quite frankly opposed to each other both of them are present a different different image of a social order. The Pashtunwali is a tribal code and it’s want to maintain a tribal equilibrium which always difficult and a threat to definite the tribe. So that this always a consensus of Opinion. A Tribal code define himself in opposition to everything that is everything is not Pashtun. But in Shari ‘at attempts to exceed specific Group Such as tribe, quawm and believe in the Universality of Umma. The code is Restrictive but more democratic.
As far as political life of Afghanistan is concerned, the tribal code want to isolate the Pashtun community while the shari'at, which does not recognize that ethnic groups have any ultimate reality. Shari’at provides a more universal social order. (roy, 1990)
For this reason the work of the ulama is seen as a threat to the identity of the tribe. The village mullahs are often closer to the tribal community than the ulama councils or any particular organization. The Mullaha of the village are careful not to interfere in these matters the charismatic leaders are quite willing to make use of the tribal code so that they may act as mediators.

Introduction:

The Uprising Against the communist regime in Afghanistan which broke out in 1978 and 1979 were directed against the state itself as against the Marxist Government. The imposition of communism on the people of Afghanistan may be seen as a new and even more radical phase of the penetration of the countryside by the state government. These are the two reason the people in Afghanistan Rejected Marxism in Afghanistan. The State of Afghanistan was born in the tribal lands as the symbols of authority which it exercises are not foreign to peasant experience and many of the leaders of the resistance movements imagined a state of Afghanistan is an Islamic state.

To separate the state and society in Afghanistan is always artificial. In Afghanistan, this separation is rooted in experience in day to day life. It is apparent in rural villages, where administrative buildings are set apart from the people's residences. It may be seen in the clothes worn and the general behaviour of individuals performing their roles in society. And it makes itself felt in the patterns of everyday speech. For the peasant the state is alien, and the relationship between the peasantry and the state official is characterized by a profound and mutual disrespect. In fact, there is only one real town, Kabul, the capital, where, of course, the distinction between state and society is seen. But there are really two Afghanistan: first, there is the town known as Shahr, the place of innovation this is the natural environment of the civil servant, the teacher, the soldier and the communist, all intellectuals and bare-heads (sarluchak), held to be unbelievers and arrogant, and secondly villages the provinces (atraf), the home of religion, tradition and values which stand the test of time.

Tribal and Non-tribal Foundation of Afghanistan:

The Afghanistan state was established in the eighteenth century when a tribal association developed into a sovereign state. In 1747 Ahmad Shah, of the Saddozay tribe lead an Abdali association, now this tribe known as the Durrani, in the conquest of the area between Persia and the river Indus. The Saddozay dynasty was to be followed in 1818 by another Durrani dynasty, the Muhammadzay clan of the Barakzai tribe, which held power until 1978. The association was held together by the common aim of conquering neighbouring areas with a view to pillaging or exacting tribute. The political and military forms of this period were characteristic of tribal warfare. War was a short-lived affair and decided upon by the council of tribe chiefs a limited jirga the troops that went into battle were selected from the total number of warriors underarms (Lashkar). The framework was that of traditional society, but the Lashkar usually had a supreme and temporary leader whose room for manoeuvre was limited, for he was always suspected of favouring his own tribe. He was first and foremost a warrior chief, with whom his followers entered into a contract. His right to lead was based upon the fact that he had been enthroned by a great tribal jirga (an assembly of all the warriors). The great Jirga was the founding myth of the Afghan state and was to be re-enacted in periods of crisis (as for the enthronement of Nadir Khan in 1929). There was no spirit of patriotism, but a profound sense of cultural identity. One's allegiance belonged to the restricted group and the tribal code (Pashtunwali), not to the Pashtun community or to the state; to join the enemy in order the better to affirm the tribal values (vengeance or self-assertion) was not seen as constituting treachery.
There is distinguish between the tribal zones and the non-tribal zones, even the line between the two is not clear. Every Afghan community is linked to the past by a connection of their ancestors through his father. He is also conscious of belonging to a larger entity which takes the form of a more or less endogenous community (the qawm), whether it is tribe, clan, professional group (qawm of the mullahanas or of Barbers), caste (the glaze), religious group (the Sunni) ethnic group (munjani), village community or an extended family. There are some other terms like small tribe (Kabila) for the qawms (قوم) having some traditional rights and customs, a system within Islam of autonomous values (honour, punishment, etc.) These are essentially the Pashtun zones of the east there is the area called Pashtunwali (which is at one and the same time both a code and an ideology) and there are some prestigious Institutions of the Tribe called jirga,(جرگہ) the assemblies of all the men in the tribe. For the case of Pashtun of the west, especially the Durrani, the case is more difficult. There is certainly a tribal memory, in the sense that belonging to the tribe and the clan is something of which people are well aware and quite happy to talk about. Their allegiance is directed towards the great families, such as the royal family, or, in the case of the Popolzay tribe, the Karzai; they also respect the tribal mythology of the great jirga and the principle of egalitarianism
The history of the Afghan state (Daulat دولت) from 1747 to the present is bound up with the search on the part of the state of bureaucracy (hukumat) for autonomy from the tribes. The state government has the influence of tribalism in the sense that individual tribes no longer retain specific responsibilities but it is still subject to the patronage of the community (qawm (قوم The summit of power in the 'state still belong to the Muhammadzay establishment.

Islam in Afghanistan:

Apart from a few thousand Hindus and Sikhs and a few hundred Jews, all Afghans are Muslims. Eighty per cent of these are Sunni of the Majority of them Hanafite, and the rest are Shi'a, majority of with a small Isma'ili minority of nearly two thousand people. In a country like Afghanistan, where the concept of the nation has developed but recently, where the state is seen as external to society and where people's allegiance is directed primarily towards their local community, the only thing which all Afghans have in common is their religion, Islam. It provides the intellectual prospect, the system of values and the code of behaviour, even though occasionally this may involve a clash with other codes of conduct, such as the tribal system it provides the only source of legitimation based upon universal values. The social basis of Islam varies according to whether the context within which it exists is tribal or non-tribal, living in rural or urban areas, and in the same way the link between ideology and religion differs accordingly whether a group is secularized or fundamentalist, traditionalist or reformist. Thus one finds different forms of religious expression, each with its own symbol. In this context, we should distinguish between the village mullah, the 'alim (doctor of lawعالم ), the Sayyad (reputed to be a descendant of the Prophet (PBUH)), the peer (a charismatic figure sometimes to be found at the head of a Sufi brotherhood) and finally the Islamist intellectual. Among the different forms of religious expression, there should be a difference between the popular devotion, the legal orthodoxy of the ulama, the mysticism of the Sufis and the political Islam of the Salafism. Recent developments have seen a gradual erosion of the influence of the ulama, which has been going on since the last century, though this has suddenly been reversed because of the present war. There has also been a schism in Sufism between the orthodox orders in the non-tribal zones and the non-clerical orders in the southern area of Afghanistan. Other developments have been the decline in the influence of the Sayyad and the charismatic leaders, and a crisis in the relationship between shari'a and custom in the tribal zones. The Islamist movement, led by young intellectuals, has greatly increased its power and influence.

Islam, traditional law and the tribal code:

Throughout Afghanistan, Islam is far from being a single system of norms. While state law (qanun قانون) is alien to the country communities, customs (riwaj رواج) and superstition, often of pre-Islamic origin, exist everywhere. There is also, a certain number of institutions, such as the counsel of the venerable elders, and mihrab have developed without any direct link with the shari'ah council. In particular, a complex but precise system of common law has gradually evolved in the countryside. But, as far as the non-tribal zones are concerned, the general framework of penal law and of common law is still provided by the shari'ah. And even though reference to the shari'a is often purely verbal, no positive system has come to take its place.
The situation in the tribal zones is quite different from the non-tribal zone there is a positive system, comprising the tribal code (Pashtunwali) and the assembly (jirga). Pashtunwali is at one and the same time ideology and a body of common law which has evolved its own sanctions and institutions. Political power in the tribes is secular in origin and tribes are not dependent on religion on the level of law. The tribal code and the shari'ah are opposed to several Issues.
The Status of Mulahana in the Tribal Zone is very low, the Mullahana of the village having good relation with the Tribe not with other Alim councils or other religious leaders. They give more Importance to the Tribal Laws on the Shari’at. Even if Mulllaha native tongue is Pashtu or he is Pashtu, he would never say that he was a Pashtun, The son of a khan would never engage in religious studies. To be a Pashtun is to be integrated into a tribal structure. Ulama’s are outside the tribal system, either below it or above it. The village mullah is placed with those people who have Barakat, the myan, Sayyad, peer and charismatic leaders. The family from which he comes is usually considered to be outside the tribal group. The position of mullah is often handed down from father to son he is dependent upon his own particular group. In the zones where the tradition of tribalism is still strong, such as Kunar and Paktya, he does not take part in the jirga, though elsewhere (for instance, in Wardak) he attends as a technical counsellor. If he attempts to go beyond his function as a person entrusted with the task of managing rituals, an anti-clerical reaction will always follow the mullahanas to the mosque. In each case, the representatives of religion exist outside the tribal structure, a fact which has had important consequences with regard to the way in which Islam found political expression during the war and to the influence exercised by the political parties which make up the confrontation movement.
The tribal code and Muslim law opposite to each other. Adultery rape (Zina) should, according to the shari'ah, require four witnesses to prove if it is to be proven for the Pashtunwali, hearsay (peghor) is sufficient for what is at stake is honour one's self-image and not morality shari'ah defined as what is permitted as opposed to what is not. Woman in the tribes is not allowed to inherit property, for that would contradict the principle Shari’at which is the very basis of the tribal system, The Qur'an grants to women 1/4th share in the Father's property. The dowry, a sign of prestige, frequently exceeds the limits set by the shari'ah, while, on the other hand, the repudiation of a wife by her husband, something which, according to the Qur'an, presents no difficulties, is practically impossible in the tribes to give respect to the Wife and wife’s family. Vengeance (Badal) is commended within the tribal code, while the shari'ah attempts to limit the occasions on which it can take place. Shari’at gives the importance of Forgiveness. The wesh (partition among brothers) the usual way in which land is redistributed, is contested by the mullahs on the grounds that landed property is something intangible.

It is not a question of reinterpreting the shari'ah to satisfy particular interests of the Tribe. But of two positive systems which are quite frankly opposed to each other, because they each present a different image of social order. The Pashtunwali has as its goal the maintaining within the tribe of an equilibrium which is always under threat as to the definition of the tribe, this is arrived at by a consensus of opinion. A Pashtun defines himself in opposition to everything which is not Pashtun. The shari'ah, on the other hand, attempts to exceed specific groups such as tribes, qawm and other Arabiya in the universality of the umma. The tribal code is more democratic but more restrictive. It does not attempt to transcend the particularity of the group but makes an appeal to the consensus of the tribal community. As far as the political life of Afghanistan is concerned, the tribal code wants to isolate the Pashtun community while the shari'ah, which does not recognize that ethnic groups have any ultimate reality. Shari’at provides a more universal social order. For this reason, the work of the ulama is seen as a threat to the identity of the tribe. The village mullahs are often closer to the tribal community than the ulama councils or any particular organization. The Mullahs of the village is careful not to interfere in these matters the charismatic leaders are quite willing to make use of the tribal code so that they may act as mediators.

Discuss the Tribal and Non-Tribal foundations of Afghan society. Is there any contradiction between the tribal traditions of Afghans and the tenets of Islam. Give evidence to support your hypothesis.

Define Ethnicity. Discuss the relationship between Tribe, Ethnicity and Nation

Introduction:
Ethnicity Indicate that group and Identities have developed in mutual Contract Rather than in Isolation. Some scholars like A.L. Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn studied the various meaning of Culture in the Early 1950s they Identified 162 different definitions and many of those writers who write the term Ethnicity cannot bother to define the term and the use of term differ. Ethnicity is a group of people living together on a list item
common language, culture Traditions. There may be cultural considerable variations within a group without ethnic differences. as for as cultural differences perceives are made socially relevant do social relationship have an ethnic element. The similarities bounded as the competing ethnic group may infect be highlighted by Simon Harrison (2002) define in an Article intense ethnic boundary making between groups which see each other as smiler in an important respect. Nationalism has become a famous important form for modern claims to political autonomy and self-determination. The term was first coined in German by the philosopher Herder (Berlin 1976) and French by the Abbe Barruel (O’Brien 1988). It was linked to the concept of nation-state in the notorious formulations of Woodrow Wilson and the League of Nations (Maya11 1990, Kahn 1962: 133-35).
The problem with defining of ethnicity and nation and consequently with ethnicity and nationalism is their fixed view of something which is, in fact, an enormously dynamic set of relationships. Typical definitions of these two concepts list a set of required attributes that a social group has to possess in order to be deemed ‘an ethnic group or nation. Bulmer (2001) defines an ethnic group as “a collectivity within larger society which has real or imagined common ancestry, memories of a shared historical past, and a cultural focus upon one or more common elements which distinguish the members of the group form other members of the society include: area of origin, language, religion, nationality, kinship patterns, physical appearances such as skin colour” In a similar and defined way Smith (2003) defines a nation as “a named human population occupying a historic territory and sharing common myths and memories, a public culture, and common laws and customs for all members “Both of these definitions function with the words Wolf (1998) and after him Carrithers (1992) call a “billiard ball view of social groups” that is why they depositposit human collectivities as either or fixed and overly structured entities with stable and almost unchangeable features.

Meaning Of Ethnicity:

The ‘ethnic’ is an old term but 'ethnicity' is comparatively new and used possibly for the first by David Riesman in 1853 the concept came into a practical on the social reality after World War II. And the end of colonial order and emergence of the Third World. Ethnicity as a concept has also been referred to a twin process of self-identification also referred as ascription and identification by others. Like other sociological identification categories like age, sex etc., and ethnicity have not a clearly defined boundaries. Because of its ambiguity as a concept the concept can be subjected to a manipulation of various perspectives. Self-identification is commonly based on attributes of common descent, homeland, common cultural traditions including language and religion, as well as memories of migration, colonization or conquest and identification by others is considered qn physical, cultural and behavioral characteristics. Ethnicity in a simple sense refers to cultural and political collective identity as ascribed by a group of individuals or by others. A lunging to be in a collective is an inherent part of every individual in the ethnic group
Tribe:
The 'tribe' as a social category has its beginning in the Anglo Saxon Literature. Firstly the idea of ‘primitive tribes' was used in social Anthology to the colonies. The concept of primitive tribe becomes important to describe the society of Africa South America, the Middle East and South-East Asia. for the colonial anthropology, the tribes are those people who are outside Civilization and those who have not received civilization. The tribe as a culture become an Object. Tribes have an Isolate Culture. (Verrier Elwin)
Nationalism:
Nationalisms are extremely varied phenomena, they are joined by common involvement in the modem discourse of nationalism. They are common objects of reference in international law, political debate, and even economic development programs. Nationalism is an influential political ideology that although dependent on continuous reinforcement of the institution does not go against the grain of public opinion. This has little to do with some mystically ingrained identity and it’s a great deal with the historical context of a post-Westphalian world where not being national is scarcely an option any more. In other words, nationalism is not as “identity and loyalty to the nation” it is the particular, historically created, an ideological condition that most human beings now find themselves in it. As Anderson define the stress, once the idea of imagining political communities as nations was developed, it was “modular” and could be transplanted into a wide range of otherwise disparate settings. This is what raises the issue of whether Third World or postcolonial nationalisms express “authentic” indigenous concerns or are in some sense derivative discourses (Chatterjee 1986). The discourse of nationalism is inherently international. Claims to nationhood are not just internal claims to social solidarity, common descent, or any other basis for constituting a political community.
Relationship between Ethnicity Tribe and Nationalism:
Nationalism is extremely varied phenomena that are joined by common involvement in the modem discourse of nationalism. Nationalist claims to nationhood are not just internal claims to social solidarity, common descent, or any other basis for constituting a political community. They are also right to distinctiveness other nations, claims to at least some level of autonomy and self-sufficiency, and claims to certain rights within a world-system of the nation. In other words, however, varied the internal nature of nationalisms, in other words, they share a common external frame of reference. Thus even if nationalist claims to primordial origins, ancient ethnic pedigrees, or hallowed founding histories were all true, thus, and even if every nation had pre modem roots something manifestly impossible in the case of such settler societies like the United States, Australia or South Africa-at least as defined by their European population's nationalism would still be a modem phenomenon. This is true even of “extreme” forms such as National Socialism, despite the tendency of modernization theorists and others to treat Nazism as a throwback to the modem Indeed this phenomenon of claiming state centred political rights on the basis of nationhood is arguably one of the defining phenomena of Nationalism.
There is a common thing of notions that ethnic and national identity which are also common among some academics imply that ethnicity nationalism ethnic identity and national identity, In other words, these all three concepts are seen as largely having unproblematic and the simple mechanical addition of one to the other allows us to speak of and research ethnicity or nationalism. Sometimes the distinction is made between ethnicity and ethnic identity or nation and national identity, therefore, this is a deeply flawed strategy since, as with the concept of Nationalism so do the concepts of ‘ethnicity’ and ‘nation’ carry a lot of problems. The problem with most defining of ethnicity and nationalism is their fixed view of something which is, in fact, an extremely dynamic set of relationships. There are some typical definitions of these two concepts list a set of required attributes that a social group has to possess in order to be deemed an ethnic group or nation. Bulmer defines an ethnic group as a collectivity within larger society which has real or imagined common ancestry memories of a shared historical past and a cultural focus upon one or more common elements which distinguish the members of the group form other members of the society which include: that the area of origin, language, religion, nationality, kinship patterns, physical appearance such as skin colour language etc. there are some other scholars defines nationalism, In the words of smith “a nation as a named human population occupying a historic territory and sharing common myths and memories a public culture, and common laws and customs for all members”
Nationalism is an influential political ideology that although dependent on continuous reinforcement of the institution does not go against the grain of public opinion. This has little to do with some mystically ingrained identity and it’s a great deal with the historical context of a post-Westphalian world where not being national is scarcely an option any more. In other words, nationalism is not as “identity and loyalty to the nation” it is the particular, historically created, an ideological condition that most human beings now find themselves in it.

Conclusion:

In short there as common relations with identity ethnicity and nation contain a multiplicity of meanings. The plasticity and ambiguity of the concepts allow for deep misunderstandings as well as political misuses. There is unlike identity ethnicity and nation have also acquired legislative and institutional underpinnings through formulations such as ‘ethnic minority ethnic group nationhood or nationality which have had even more destructive effects. Hence there is a most popular and legislative understanding of ethnicity and nation are severely problematic since they operate with sociological views of cultural difference perceiving it from the inside out.

Define ethnicity. Discuss the relationship between tribe, ethnicity and nation.

Essential elements of material and non-material culture

Material Culture:
Refers to the physical objects, resources, and spaces that people use to define their culture.. Material culture consists of things that are created by humans. Material culture includes things Such as Building, Cars such things as jewellery, art, buildings, weapons, machines, and even eating utensils, hairstyles, and clothing etc. there is nothing Inherent or Natural in Material Culture.

Nonmaterial culture:
Refers to the nonphysical ideas that people have about their culture, It’s abstract ideas and ways of thinking that make up a culture. It’s a group way of thinking beliefs Values Assumption About the word and Doing its Common Pattern of Behavior.

Elements of Non-material Culture:
Sociologists sometimes refer to nonmaterial culture as symbolic culture, because its central component is the set of symbols that people use. Non-material Culture includes (Symbol) gestures, language, values, norms, sanctions, folkways, and mores. Let’s look at each of these components of symbolic culture.

Gesture:
A gesture is a Movement of the body that people make in order to communicate with their bodies. All cultures use gestures. Two cultures may use the same gesture, but it may have different meanings in both cultures. For example, people from Afghanistan uses stroking one’s beard or pounding a fist into one’s hand may signify revenge. and Hooking the index fingers together signifies agreement. The thumbs-up gesture is considered rude and has the same connotation as raising one’s middle finger for traditional Afghans.

Language:
The primary way in which people communicate with one another is through language that can be combined in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought. Language is a system of words and symbols used to communicate with other people. This includes full languages as we usually think of them, such as English, Spanish, French, etc. But it also includes body language, slang, and common phrases that are unique to certain groups of people. For Example, people of Jammu and Kashmir and Pakistan use Urdu as official languages, Speak Fluent Urdu but when accent of Punjabi language and Kashmiri language mix with it several time using the same word change the meaning of it. Another example of how cultural languages differ beyond vocabulary is the fact that eye contact represents different meanings in different cultures. In America, eye contact suggests that you are paying attention and are interested in what a person has to say. In other cultures, eye contact may be considered rude and to be a challenge of authority.

Values:
Another element of Non Material culture is a system of values, which are culturally defined standards for what is good or desirable. Members of the culture use the shared system of values to decide what is good and what is bad. It is the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly. Values underlie our preferences, guide our choices, and indicate what we hold worthwhile in life.

Norms and Sanctions:
Norms are the expectations, or rules of behaviour, that reflect and enforce behaviour. Sociologists use the term norms to describe those expectations (or rules of behaviour) that develop out of a group’s values.
Sanctions: The term Sanction is either expressions of approval given to people for upholding norms or expressions of disapproval for violating them. The term sanctions refer to the reactions people receive for following or breaking norms.
Some societies have moral holiday places, locations where norms are expected to be broken. Red-light districts of our cities are examples. There, prostitutes are allowed to work the streets, bothered only when political pressure builds to “clean up” the area. If these same prostitutes attempt to solicit customers in adjacent areas, however, they are promptly arrested. Each year, the hometown of the team that wins the Super Bowl becomes a moral holiday place for one night.

Folkways and Mores:
Societal norms, or rules that are enforced by members of a community, can exist as both formal and informal rules of behaviour. Informal norms can be divided into two distinct groups: folkways and mores. Folkways are informal rules and norms that, while not offensive to violate, are expected to be followed. Mores (pronounced more-rays) are also informal rules that are not written, but, when violated, result in severe punishments and social sanction upon the individuals, such as social and religious exclusions. Norms that are not strictly enforced are called folkways. We expect people to comply with folkways, but we are likely to shrug our shoulders and not make a big deal about it if they don’t. If someone insists on passing you on the right side of the sidewalk, for example, if someone is unlikely to take corrective action, although if the sidewalk is crowded and you must move out of the way, you might give the person a dirty look.
It should also be noted that one group’s folkways may be another group’s mores. Although a man walking down the street with the upper half of his body uncovered is deviating from a folkway, a woman doing the same thing is violating the mores. In addition, the folkways and mores of a subculture may be the opposite of mainstream culture.

Cultural Relativism:
Cultural relativism is the belief that right and wrong are culturally based on individuals. “According to this premise, no one universal ethical standard transcends cultures. Basically in cultural relativism, right or wrong are relative to one’s cultural upbringing. No one overarching ethical truth exists.” (Panza and Potthast, 2010). Culture relativism is to use our own culture as the standard by which we judge other cultures and to counter the tendency of over own culture. People practice cultural relativism to understand other cultures own their own term. For example people of Kashmir love to eat Rice and South Indian People also eats Rice The the way that the south Indian people eat rice is not different from Kashmiri. Both are following the same Rice But the way they eat is different from one another.

What are the essential elements of material and non-material culture? And, explain cultural relativism with example.

Having a an arid climate,during dry season most rivers in Afghanistan become little rivulets. The rivers are mostly supported by mountain streams. These rivers had good amount of water in spring season, when snow on the mountain melts. Most Afghan rivers end in salty swamps. Most of the rivers flow in Afghanistan depends on the success of annual rain/snowfalls. The snow cover extend in Afghanistan at different period of the year (winter, early summer and autumn). When snow begins to melt in late winter and spring, the rivers rise. The Rivers in Afghanistan generally have a peak of flow at the end of the winter/spring and a minimum flow in summer/autumn.
Afghanistan is characterised by a continental climate, although the presence of mountains causes many local variations. The typical climate varies from arid in the South and Southwest to semi-arid in most other parts of the country. The high mountain ranges of Hindu Kush and Pamir are moderate humid and covered by permanent snow and glaciers at altitudes above 5,000 m. With a few exceptions of some locations receiving sufficient rainfall in spring (Northern slopes of Hindu Kush above 1,000m altitude), the climate is not favourable for rainfed agriculture. During winter, temperatures are low and precipitation occurs in form of snow whereas during summer, temperatures are high and rainfall is virtually zero. Without irrigation supplies, these arid to semi arid areas cannot support any irrigation.
Although Afghanistan is located in half deserted atmosphere, it is still rich in water resources mainly due to the series of high mountains such as Wakhan, Hindukush and Baba covered by snow. Over 80 per cent of the country’s water resources have their origin in the Hindu
Kush mountain ranges at altitudes above 2,000 m which function as a natural storage of water in form of snow during winter and thus support perennial flow in all major rivers by snow melt during summer.
Howsoever , there are primarily four river systems; 1) Kabul: An exception among Afghan rivers, Kabul river is always full of water. It flows east into Pakistan to merge into the Indus River, 2) Amu Darya: This river, located on the norther border, is the country's only largely navigable river. Two main tributaries of Amu Darya are Panj and Vakhsh, 3) Harirud River: Rising in Central Afghanistan, Harirud River moves to west and north-west direction where the border with Iran exists. Water of Harirud River is extensively for irrigation purposes in Herat region, 4) Helmand River: Longest among the rivers in Afghanistan, Helmand River originates in Central Hindu Kush mountains. The river flows past the south-west region of the country, ending in Iran. This river is also widely used for irrigation. There are very few lakes and marshland areas in Afghanistan. Because of their rarity, existing wetlands are particularly valuable for people as sources of water.
Being part of traditional irrigation system, Karezes (Qanat) are underground galleries that tap ground water from the aquifers of alluvial fans. Underground tunnels with gentle slopes carry water from the source to the settled areas. The technique has been used for thousands of years in Afghanistan, Iran, the Middle East and North Africa. It is one of the most economical methods of tapping groundwater for irrigation purposes. It is environmentally safe and water is drawn by use of gravity. There are 6741 karezes in the country. These karezes irrigate about 163,000 ha of land. Karen irrigation is common in the south and southwest of the country and less in the north of the
country.

The phenomenon or concept of nationalism has always been debatable. There are many rival views about what constitutes a nation. A nation comprise a mixture of objective and subjective features, blend of cultural and political characteristics. In objective terms , nations are cultural entities : group of people who speak the same language, have the same religion, shares similar values, heritage and culture as well as are bound by same past and so on.
The idea that nation is essentially an ethnic cultural entity ha been described as the primary concept of nation. Its roots can be traced back to late eighteenth-century Germany and the writings of figures such as Herder and Fichte. For Herder, the innate character of each national group was ultimately determined by its natural environment, climate and physical geography, their lifestyle, working habits, attitudes, language, distinctive traditions and historical memories. later on, Anthony Smith in “The Ethnic Origin Of Nation” highlighted the continuity between modern nationals and pre modern ethnic communities, which they called ‘ethnies’.
As an example, Afghanistan has been a multi-ethnic society and country’s ethnic makeup has greater implications towards nation building. There are eight major ethnic groups.Within Afghanistan each Afghan is first a Pashtun, Hazara, Uzbek, or Tajik.
A nation-state for the ethnic group derives political legitimacy from its status as homeland of that ethnic group, from its protective function against colonization, persecution, or racism, and from its claim to facilitate the shared cultural and social life, which may not have been possible under the ethnic group's previous status as an ethnic minority.
The international order does affect the ethnic core of a society or nation. The Yugoslav wars of the 1990s,explains that members of ethnic diasporas living in Western states such as Australia, Canada, and the United States, significantly contributed to the Yugoslav conflict. Albanian, Croat and Serb diasporas were engaged in homeland conflicts through financial, political and, sometimes military support. Moreover, these ethnic groups lobbied politicians in their host countries to influence the conduct of foreign policy vis-a-vis their home countries.

Amir Abdur Rahman Khan is credited as being the ruler responsible for the development of the modern state of Afghanistan. Abdur Rahman was an Afghan nationalist who was responsible for establishing absolute rule and solidifying Afghanistan within the framework of a modern nation state. Afghanistan since the days of its foundation has been a society strictly fragmented along diverse ethnic lines. This diversity has always made the country a ground for power politics where the ideology and nationalism of the country has become a matter of debate and discussion among rulers, subjects, academicians and international community. In the midst of all this Afghanistan found its ‘Iron Man’ Amir Abdur Rahman Khan who ruled the country from 1880-1901. He was the grandson of Dost Mohammad Khan, one of the prominent Pashtu rulers of Afghanistan. There are several grounds for which Abdur Rahman Khan was conferred with the title of ‘Iron Man.’ Briefing them, one of the for most reason was his ability to suppress various rebellions( mainly different ethnic/ religious rebels) which threatened Afghanistan’s national unity. He was responsible in creating provincial governorates which were different from the tribal boundaries. It has also been found from his autobiography that subjugating the tribes, extending government control through a strong, visible army were some of his primary objectives. Along with several reforms technological advancement was also another agenda during his reign. He paid a great deal of attention to develop technology in the country with the help of foreign assistance. In order to develop a comprehensive unity he broke all the major local centers of power so that the people instead of adhering to their tribal leaders could foster their allegiance to a centralized government. This alienation undoubtedly made Abdur Rahman a thorn in the eyes of these tribal leaders.

In many of the Islamic states political Islam has made its appearance through various regimes. States like Afghanistan and Pakistan are also no exception to it. Many rulers from time to time are seen using religion for various political activities. Since Abdur Rahman Khan believed that the heterogenic nature of Afghan society hindered the nation’s unity, he used religion to forge a unity in diversity. As majority of the population followed Islam, he believed that a common religion would be able to surpass ethnic differences. Amidst all these he also started declaring himself as the Muslim ruler of all Afghan people and claimed divine sanction for his rule. In many cases it was seen that he even used religion as a way to achieve political legitimacy. Claiming himself as a true follower of Islam and as a liberator of the Afghan people, he was seen using Islam against his Internal and External oppositions like the tribal leaders and external interventions. Viewing them as a threat to his power he termed many of these internal and external powers as ‘infidels’. He was often seen claiming that the role played by the tribal and foreign powers in the land of Afghanistan was contrary to the teachings of Islam and hence tribal boundaries were eliminated with provincial leaders. He was against of Afghanistan being used as a buffer state by international powers. All these effort were primarily made to eliminate his potential and actual opposition. Converting the land of Kaafirstan to Nooristan in the name of Religion helped him in cracking the powers of local leaders and bringing the religious establishments under his control and authority. Therefore where religion became a medium to achieve national unity it was also a path to political legitimacy during the rule of Amir Abdur Rahman Khan.

Geo-power which involves two basic words ‘geography’ and ‘power’ elucidates on to explain the appropriation of power in the pursuit of controlling or to reign over a piece of land or a defined geography. The struggle for power over a geographical area involves conflicts, material force and struggle between what it is idealized to be and what it is in reality. The politics over a land involves struggle and re-organization of the space which may involve rewriting of the history. Geo-power is the variation on influence of power on the basis of location or space. Geo-power ensures a state legitimacy through its definition of territory. Location is the most important component in defining state’s position of power. Critics believe that the concept of geo-power has led to the division of land between what they term as ‘us’ and ‘them’. The politics over geography or geo-power may involve internal a well as international rivalry and powers in the region. However the concept of geo-power fits in the case of Afghanistan if one takes into account the power struggles and the continuous efforts by internal and external powers in reshaping and remapping Afghanistan’s territory and land.
Peripheral part of any state easily succumbs or rather is made to succumb to the state-centric changes over re-mapping of a particular land. For example in case of Afghanistan and its immediate neighbor Pakistan the problem of ‘Durand line’ has always been the bone of contention. This disputed border has led to the problem of ‘territorial trap’ because of the same ethnic, religious composition on both sides of the border. Geo politics has led to such territorial divisions, especially among the peripheral regions that continuous atrocities, secession, separatism, insecurities have become a part and parcel of people living along the borders.
The definition of border is not entirely an international phenomenon. Borders may even include federated states or sub national entities. But these borders are mainly unguarded. But an ‘International’ border which divides two sovereign states is maintained legally and follows International norms. Therefore a border (boundary) can be both an internal as well as an international phenomenon.

Amir Abdur Rehman is regarded as the father of modern Afghanistan. He is also known as the “Iron Amir” because during his reign he weakened all the challenges surrounding him and his country. In order to gain power he initially killed his rival cousins and several leaders of the Pakhtun tribes especially the Ghilzai Pakhtuns. He was also the person who brought the idea of Afghanistan as a buffer zone between the British India and Tsarist Russia. He was also to a great extent successful in building a centralized Afghan state. The Amir used force to gain control over the entire country and by 1884 almost the whole Afghanistan came under his jurisdiction. After assuming power he started changing the age old structure of administration in which previously the urban centers and some of the tribal areas remained autonomous. He immediately removed the autonomous status of these regions and directly ruled and levied taxes on his subjects living there. Though during his time there were a number of uprisings against him yet he brutally suppressed all of them. He used the British subsidies to curb his internal opponents. It is to be mentioned that Amir Abdur Rehman was the creator of modern Afghanistan. Before his coming to the throne the country was divided into distinct regions and tribal areas, but the Amir destroyed the power of the regional elites and formed a unitary and a unified Afghan state.

Abdur Rehman was the first leader in the history of Afghanistan who used religion as an instrument of political power. He used political Islam as a mean to oppress the minorities. He used Sunni hanafi school of Islam to incorporate non Sunni areas of Hazarajat and Kafirstan which were never under the control of Kabul government before. He declared the Shia hazaras as infidels and therefore ordered his troops to enslave and killed them and confiscated their properties to accommodate the Pakhtuns in those areas. Similarly he used Islam as an opportunity to control Kafirstan of eastern Afghanistan since the area was vulnerable to Russian and British influence. As a true Islamic ruler he started the conversion process of the kafirs and changed the name of kafirstan to Nuristan. Through religion he established direct communication with the common Afghan population and therefore the age old practice of appeasing the tribal and ethnic elite was reduced during his reign. Before the rise of Abdur Rehman as the new Amir of Afghanistan, Sufi Islam was more widespread in Afghanistan. But from 1880s onwards ideological Islam became prominent due to his policies. However during those years Islamic awakening was also coupled with the resistance to colonial rule as the British and the Russian empire were exerted their influence in the region. The Amir declared himself as the “light of the nation and religion” and therefore the Muslim population became more obliged towards the Amir. Likewise during his regime the religion became an instrument of state polity.

Afghanistan in addition to its mountains also possesses river systems whose source lies in the countries high central mountains. The four major river systems in Afghanistan are 1) The Amu Darya or the Oxus system: Located on the northern border of the country, this river is largely navigable in character. Panj and Vaksh are the two man tributaries of the Amu Darya which originates in the Pamirs. All the Northern river basins of northern Afghanistan are part of the Amu Darya basin. Since the Amu Darya River is passable in nature it helps in transportation of goods to and from Afghanistan. 2) Hari Rud system: This river system irrigates some of Afghanistan’s productive and cultivated land. Much of the water from the Hari Rud River is used for irrigation purposes in the Herat region. The Hari Rud River in Afghanistan bends north to form a natural border between Iran and Afghanistan. 3) Hilmand- Arghandab system: Being the longest river in Afghanistan, Hilmand encompasses a wide area in the country. The water drains from Bamiyan to Siestan basin and to the Iranian border, covering 43 percent of the total land area. This water is extensively used for irrigation and is essential for farmers in Afghanistan. The chief tributary of Helmand is the Arghandab River which has a major dam in the north of Kandahar. 4) Kabul River System: The Kabul river basin located in the Eastern Central part of the country is surrounded mostly by mountains. It is a shared river with Pakistan. Much of the discharge of Kabul water is the result of snow that gets accumulated during the winter season. Along with the capital city Kabul, seven other provinces in Afghanistan are located in the Kabul river basin. This river joins the Indus in the northwest of Islamabad.
Topography as the name itself suggest is the detailed mapping of the surface features of a particular land. Afghanistan being a landlocked mountainous country has attracted invaders since centuries due its location at the crossroads of several trade routes. The massive Hind Kush Mountain forms a barrier between the Northern provinces and the rest of the country, dividing it into three distinct regions namely: Central highlands, Northern plains and the Southwestern plateau. Topography has always played a very important role in determining the water utility and its flow in Afghanistan. As agriculture is the dominant sector of Afghan economy, development of the water sector has been one of the prime objectives of the Government. 80% of Afghanistan’s water originates from the Hind Kush mountains. One of the major topographical changes that affect the water flow in Afghanistan is the greatest stream flow in the late spring and in the early summer with snowfall from the mountains finally accelerating the dangers of flood in the country. As the climate is desert and Mediterranean types, there is a very long dry season from May to October and a cold rainy season from November to April. The rainy season of Afghanistan which falls in the winter season does not coincide with the agriculturally active season, thus making the agricultural system totally dependent on irrigation.
‘Qanat’ or (Karez) systems are underground galleries that tap underground water. These are underground tunnels that carry water from the source to the settles areas. This system is mainly used for irrigation purpose and also for drinking water supply. These underground channels carry water from aquifers in highlands to the surface in lowlands. More than 15% of Afghanistan’s irrigated lands get water from the Qanats. However 60 to70% of the ‘Kareez’ are not in use mainly because of low precipitation, which is adversely affecting the people dependent on these systems.

Nation generally consists of a group of people who are united on the basis of a number of shared values. The concept or the idea of nation state which arose due to the emergence of industrial capitalism in the west can’t be regarded as a universal phenomenon. However, generally the process started since 17th century onwards. For the perennial thinkers nation is viewed as a cultural community while for the modernists a nation is a political community. Some of the generic natures of a nation are as follows:
Like a state a nation also consists of population, a defined territory, a stable and an effective government and the power of sovereignty. However ethnic homogeneity or ethnic bonding can exhibit an important influence in the building up of a nation. Absence of internal ethnic strife can lead to the development and prosperity of a nation without much hindrance. Another important feature is religion which provides a significant role in the formation of a nation. Common religion can become a unifying force for the growth of national identity among the people. Thirdly shared historical experiences and a common past can manifest a constructive role in the emergence of a nation. The ethno-history of the dominant ethnic elite exercises an influential role in the nation building process.
In the due course of time ethnic core presents its case as a national idea in various societies. It has been seen that due to politicization and ethnic mobilization, sometimes the minority ethnic group in a society becomes the dominant ethnic group in the newly formed state. Once aroused on the lines of ethnicity, the neglected or the peripheral ethnic groups can become the master in their homeland once their own state or the nation is formed. If there are other minority groups present in the newly born state then sometimes the recently dominant ruling ethnic group of the state try to impose their majority culture, language or religion on the former. It has been observed that even in various multicultural societies the process of cultural homogenization was started by the ethnic core of that society. In these cases the status of some ethnic groups are undermined while the others have upgraded. However a strong ethnic network, common symbols, shared values, cultures and traditions can mobilize the people and develop the spirit of oneness among them. On the one hand sometimes people have identified their ethno cultural bases right up from the past and on the other hand collective interests or collective identity can become a marker in the development of the concept of nation state in the present times. But there is no doubt that all these help in the formation of a nation and the nation building process. Therefore ethnic core or the dominant ethnic group in a society can exercise a significant role in developing the idea of a nation.
The international order does affect the ethnic core in a society or a nation. Sometimes international involvement can also encourage rivalry between the ethnic groups in a society. For example it can be observed that during the time of Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (during the cold war period) international forces exercised a major role in influencing one ethnic group against the other. At that time Pakistan was in support of the Pakhtun mujahedeen groups while the Tajiks and Uzbeks were supported by some of the Central Asian Republics and many other countries of the region. In such a scenario one ethnic group can be used against the other in a society. International players can sometimes play an important role in the ethnic mobilization of a particular group or community. Pakhtuns who are the predominant ethnic group in Afghanistan and are the largest minority group in Pakistan are most of the time influenced by the policies of the Pakistani government. Especially during the Taliban era (Talibans were mostly Pakhtuns) in Afghanistan, Pakistan was one of the major countries which exerted great impact on Afghanistan. Therefore international situation can have a deep implication on the ethnic core of a state.

Geography or the space is considered to be about power. Geography is the product of struggle between competing authorities to have control over a particular space or territory. The concept of geo power refers to the use of territory as an instrument of state power. It implies the legitimacy of the state from its territorial subjects. Though the birth of a state (in a particular territory) is comparatively a new phenomenon but the history of a territory inhabited by the people dates back to thousands of years. With the history, the cultural practices followed by the people in a territory are also closely related. Therefore once the political boundary of a state is demarcated and the people surrounding the border areas who share the common ethnic or religious linkages are divided between the two territories as a part of the division, the problem arises which leads to frequent border skirmishes and conflicts. For example in case of the Af-Pak (Afghanistan-Pakistan border area) region this problem is acute. Here the importance is given to the territory as the peoples affinity lie with that territory rather than with the newly formed state and the population living in the peripheries are mostly affected by it and therefore most of the time they try to resist this ‘territorial trap’.
State impacts the lives of the people living in the peripheries to a great extent. Usually the people of the peripheries share common cultural bondings with the people of the other side of the border and this particular fact make them more inclined towards their cultural brothers rather than the state they belong to. People residing in these peripheries view that along with the state they also have the right to define the borders. Therefore there is always a contest between the people and the state. In various instances geography becomes the identity of the people. Therefore a state tries to institutionalize new rules and laws to control its population. However there is no doubt about the fact that the state is the primary and the only sovereign institution and no other institutions can be above the state within a territory. Thus people sometimes recourse to violence in order to pressurize the government to fulfill their long standing demands.
Border or boundary can be termed as both domestic as well as international issue. Legitimacy to the state is important not only internally but externally as well.

Rivers play a pivotal role in the history of human civilization. Afghanistan, a landlocked country located at the heart of Asia is also no exception to this. In the present times the river valleys and the river systems exercise a major role in the livelihood of the people of Afghanistan. Principally there are four major river systems that have been existing in the country. 1) Amu Darya (Oxus) system; 2) Hari Rud system; 3)Hilmand Arghandab system; 4) Kabul river system. One of the important features of the river systems in Afghanistan is that most of the rivers in the country are a part of inland river system (excluding the Kabul river which is a subsystem of Indus river system)and they don’t have the outlet to sea. 1)Amu Darya System: Amu Darya has several major tributaries like for example Kokcha, kunduz, Balkh Ab, the Sar-i-pul , Ab-i-Quisar which perform a crucial role in the daily life of the people of the country. The Amu Darya river system is also a major transit route for the supply of goods to and from Afghanistan. A number of significant ports are also situated across the river. Sher Khan Bandar is one among them. After crossing Afghanistan, the Amu Darya River enters the Central Asian Republics and Russia and finally joins the Aral sea. 2) Hari Rud System: The length of the Hari Rud river is around 650 kilometres in Afghanistan. Kao Rud is an important tributary of it which joins Hari Rud from the south near Obeh. Though the two rivers don’t meet but Murghab is considered as a major river in the Hari Rud system. 3) Hilmand Arghandab system: The Hilmand river has no outlet to the sea. The river has several tributaries like Kaj Rud, Rud-i-Musa Qala, Tirin etc. A major and an important river of this system is Arghandab which joins Hilmand at Qala Bist. The distribution of Hilmand water is a major bone of contention between Afghanistan and neighbouring Iran. 4) Kabul river system: The Kabul river is a part of the greater Indus river system which flows through the Kabul valley to the Peshawar valley. The Panjsher river, Kunar and the two Laghman rivers namely Alishang and Alingar are important tributaries of the Kabul river.
Topography plays a pivotal role in the water use of a country like Afghanistan. As the amount of arable land is sparse in Afghanistan therefore vegetation is a key component of the Afghan society. Since the area of vegetation is small, water is a major recruitment for the people to carry out their agricultural activities as the Afghan society is primarily an agriculture based society. But the topography of the country plays a major role in this regard as all the provinces of Afghanistan don’t receive the equal and substantial amount of water. Mostly it has been seen that the peripheries receive more water than the central part of Afghanistan and thus population of the country is also mostly oriented towards the peripheries. Most of the water resources in Afghanistan are derived from the snowmelt in the hind Kush Mountain. Due to topography and the high mountain areas the country also has the potential of hydro power generation though the progress in this regard is comparatively low. Even the conflict in the country also arises in most of the cases regarding the use and the sources of water. People try to inhabit in the areas where water is available for use. Down course of a river is very important as the volume of water is more there. Sometimes nomads also try to settle in the river valleys where they usually face confrontation with the local population. Another important feature is that due to the topography (high altitudes in some areas) rivers more often diverge their flows from their original or supposed directions. It also impacts the water use in a particular area. It is because of the topography qanats are built throughout Afghanistan for irrigation purpose.
Qanats are manmade water system existed in eastern, southern and south-western Afghanistan. The qanat system helps in bringing water to the surface through wells connected by tunnels to intercept the water table for their use in the irrigation process. The wells or the shafts are usually 30 to 50 feet high. The qanat system is greatly useful for the agricultural activities especially in the marginalized areas. However the qanats need to be cleaned annually because of silt accumulation. For agricultural activities qanats play a vital role especially in the mountainous areas of Afghanistan.

Why Amir Abdur Rahman Khan is known as the Iron Amir. How the religion became instrument of state polity during his regime.

Compare the two wars between the East India Company (Imperial Britain) and the Afghan Amirs. What were the European causes of this conflict.

Discuss the generic nature of nation and how the ethnic core present its case as national idea. The international order affects the ethnic core, do you agree?

Discuss the concept of Geo-power. How does state affect the people's lives on periphery. Is border (boundary) a domestic or an international phenomena.

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